Official languages:French and English
Date of Accession: 22nd May 1964
Area: 475, 442 km2
Population: 19,406,100 inhabitants
Currency: Franc CFA
The Republic of Cameroon is a western and central African country located between the Federal Republic of Nigeria in the western part, Chad in the northern part, the Central African Republic in the east, Gabon, the Equatorial Guinea and the Republic of Congo in the southern part, and the Gulf of Guinea in the south-east. The population of the Cameroon is estimated at 19,406,100 inhabitants in January 2010 with a surface area of 475, 442 square kilometers.
As a former German colony, the territory was placed under the leadership of the League of Nations (SDN) after the First World War before being entrusted to the French and United Kingdom’s Administration. This former territory under the French Administration became independent on 1st January 1960, known as the Republic of Cameroon. It is followed by a part of the territory under the British Administration (Cameroon) in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon which was renamed on 20th May 1972 as the United Republic of Cameroon and then the Republic of Cameroon since 1984. Cameroon and its current boundaries resulted from the European colonization, but the history of its inhabitants has been set up, à long time ago. Before the colonial period in the 19th century, the inhabitants did not form a unique and homogenous group; thereby, presenting various social organization models ranging from structured kingdoms to nomadic or sedentary ethnic groups. The original inhabitants of the Republic of Cameroon were probably the Baka who are also called Pygmies living in forests. They are still living in the forests of the southern and eastern provinces of the country.
The Republic of Cameroon is a melting pot composed of several ethnic groups (about 280) with some large blocks (Semites, Hamités, Bantus, semi-Bantus and Sudanese) and many racial mixing. Various socio-cultural groups are represented in the Cameroonian population. The Great North composed of three regions as parts of the Lake Chad Conventional basin, where two main groups are identified, namely, the Peuls (or foublé) and the « Kirdi ». Kirdi derived from the local word « Kurdes » which is the pejorative description of the Pagans by opposition from the Muslims. For the past 60 years, large non-muslim ethnic groups are found in the mountains of Cameroon, from Garoua region up to Mora. The following ethnic groups are generally found: Toupouri, Moundang, Guizigua, Massa, etc. The Peuls from northern savannas are often organized in “Lamidats” led by a “Lamido”, the equivalent of a village Chief.
The Republic of Cameroon is composed of ten (10) regions which are divided into 58 departments. The latter is also divided into Districts or arrondissements.
Cameroon has an abundance of agricultural resources (banana, cacao, coffee, cotton, honey), forestry resources, mining resources (bauxite, iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and diamond) and oil. In 2010, the active population is shared between primary sector (19.7 %), industrial sector (31.4 %) and tertiary sector (48.9 %).
As far as imports are concerned, the Cameroon major economic partners are as follows: France (19.1 %), China (13.3 %), and Nigeria (12.4 %). As for the exports, the key destinations in 2010 are Spain (15.1 %), The Netherlands (12.8%), China (9.4 %), Italy (9.3 %), France (6.5 %) and the United States (6.4 %).
Three (3) major ports are operational, namely the autonomous port of Douala, Limbe and Kribi ports which are significantly funded by the Chinese Investment Bank. These two ports are likely to become deep sea ports susceptible to host deepest draught vessels bigger than those costing in Douala today.
The Republic of Cameroon is now a full Member country of the International Organisation of the Francophonie (OIF), Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the African Union (AU), the Commonwealth, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), etc.
Cameroon is a founding father of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) since 22nd May 1964.
Both French and English are used as official languages in Cameroon.
The capital city of the Republic of Cameroon is Yaoundé.
Sources : http//fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cameroun
Official languages: Arabic
Date of Accession: 27th March 2008
Area: 1,759,540 km2
Population: 6,422,800 inhabitants
Currency: Libyan dinar
Libya is a northern Africa country which is part of the Maghreb. The country is borded in the northern part by the Mediterranean Sea, in the west by Algeria and Tunisia, in the south by Niger and Chad and in the east by Sudan and Egypt. It covers 1,759,540 square kilometres with a population estimated at 6,422,800 inhabitants in 2010. Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa in terms of surface area, and the 18th worldwide.
It is worth noting that Libya is a former Italian colony. The word Libya derived from Libou, a Berber tribe. The word resulted in the Greek word, Libyè. There are basically three main areas, namely, the Tripolitania, the Cyrenaica and the Fezzan. The original people were Berbers. In ancient times, the territory of the country was colonized by Phoenicians followed by Greeks before being conquered by the Roman Empire. In the 7th Century, it is invaded by Arab armies; thereby, imposing their culture and religion. After going through the leadership of various kingdoms in the middle ages, the territory was then governed by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th Century. The Tripolitania area has become a State before being reclaimed by the Ottoman Empire in 1835. The region is said to be the last Ottoman’s property in Africa. The current territory of Libya is conquered and colonized by the Kingdom of Italy in 1912 after the war between Italy and Turkey. During the Second World War, Libya under Italian leadership was invaded and occupied by the Allies. Libya was independent in 1951.
The Libyan population is predominantly Arab and is organized as tribes. A sensitive African influence is visible in the southern part of the country. Furthermore, a concentration of Berber population is noticed in Djebel Nefusa, and Touaregs in the Fezzan along with Algeria and Niger boundaries. Large migratory flows come from the Maghreb, the Sub-Saharan Africa (Chad, Niger, Mali, and Sudan), Egypt and Asia (Philippines, Pakistan, India, Korea, and Thailand).
Libya is composed of 20 provinces and 13 municipalities.
Libya has so many natural and mining resources, inter alia, gypsum, natural gas, significant underground water resource reserves and oil. The economy of the country is essentially based on oil. Libya is the second crude oil producer in Africa following the Federal Republic of Nigeria and in front of Algeria. However, Libya has the largest oil reserves in Africa. These reserves are estimated at 46.4 billion of barrels in 2011. Libya is therefore one of the key actors of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The country also has significant natural gas reserves (1,548 billion cubic meters) that are up to now underexploited: 28 billion of cubic meter in 2009 were produced and the remaining is used within the country, particularly in power plants. Part of the gas is exported to Italy through the Greenstream gas pipe line. The country also has significant underground water reserves stored in a series of aquifers located in the central and southern parts of the country. To fill the water shortage gap in occupied areas and for irrigation purposes, the Great Man Made River (GMMR) was launched in early 80’s.
Libya is a Member country of the Sahel and Saharan States Community (CEN-SAD), the African Union (AU), the Arab League, the Arab Maghreb Union, OPEC, UNO, etc.
Libya has become a Member country of the LCBC since 27th March 2008.
The official language of the country is Arabic.
The capital city of Libya is Tripoli.
Official languages: French
Date of Accession: 22nd May 1964
Area: 1,287,000 km2
Population: 16, 274, 738 inhabitants
Currency: France CFA
The Republic of Niger is a steppe-like West African country which is boarded in the north by Algeria and Libya, in the south by Nigeria and Benin, in the west by Burkina Faso and Mali, and in the east by Chad. It covers a surface area of 1,287,000 square kilometres in 2012 with a population estimated at 16, 274, 738 inhabitants in 2012. Niger is the largest country in West Africa and the 6th at the level of the continent (after Algeria, Congo, Sudan, Libya and Chad).
As a former french colony, the human settlement of the country dated the first century BC. Berbers came through transsaharan routes; thereby, compelling the sedentary population to migrate to the south or mixing with them. At the 7th Century, the Empire of Songhaï was established and later on islamicized. The capital city of the empire was GAO from the 10th Century. In 1591, the empire was destroyed by Saadians. Between the 17th and 19th Centuries, Touaregs and Peuls as well as Hausa took over the country. Niger has become independent on 3rd August 1960. The Republic of Niger is thus considered as the bridge between the Northern Africa and the Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Republic of Niger is a multi-ethnic country and serves as contact area between the Sub-Saharan Africa and the Northern Africa. In fact, Diffa and Zinder are the two regions of the country which are parts of the Conventional basin of Lake Chad. Kanouris, Boudoumas and Toubous, Peuls, Arabs, Hausas and Touaregs tribes are the major ethnic groups living in this area. The other components of the Niger population are as follows:
- Hausas (53.5 % of the population) are found between the Dallol Maouri and Zinder. They are living in the central and eastern parts of the country with a cultural area extended up to Nigeria;
- Peuls (10.4 %) scattered throughout the country with a high concentration in Tillabery region ;
- Touaregs (10.6 %), Toubous (0.5 %) and Arabs (0.3 %) in the north and the north-east parts of the country. Kanouris (4.6 %) and Boudoumas in the far East of the country. The society of Niger is mainly composed of 90 to 95 % of Sunni Muslims. The remaining is made up of Shiite Muslims, Christians or Animists. The low representation of Christians in Niger is due to the fact that the various regions of the country were islamised, a long time ago. Christians in Niger are mainly found in Doutchi and Tera areas where a great number of animist communities are present, too.
The Republic of Niger now includes eight (8) regions; namey Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Tillabéry, and Zinder. Each region bears the name of its capital city. Regions are divided into 35 departments and communes.
The Republic of Niger enjoys many agricultural resources (millet, sorghum, cotton, groundnuts, maize), mining resources (uranium, gold, coal, iron, bauxite, phosphate, oil, etc,). Niger is the 6th uranium producer worldwide. However, the exploitation of the Imouraren site which is presented by Areva as the «most important uranium mine in Africa and the second worldwide» after that of McArthur River in Canada. When the mine will be running in full swing, the Republic of Niger will therefore become the second uranium producer worldwide after Canada. In addition to uranium, foreign companies are allowed to explore other resources in the desert. The country is very rich in terms of many paleontological and archaeological vestiges. Several dinosaur skeletons are disseminated in the desert, notably at a site close to the Tiguidit cliff in the southern part of Agadez. Many other animal skeletons and fossils were discovered. The National Museum Boubou Hama of Niamey dedicated an entire pavilion regarding this issue. The Aïr massif (northern part of the country) and the Ténéré desert host many rock-carvings such as Dabous giraffes. It is not uncommon to come across sites recovered by flint-made arrowheads. Local nomadic populations (mainly touaregs) are likely to sell some to tourists, but legislations are clear regarding this issue. In order to avoid any traffic, the exportation of these materials is firmly forbidden. In the southern-east of the country, close to Bura village, archaeologists exhumed baked clay sculptures. The site which was discovered in 1983 was registered on the read list of threatened archaeological vestiges by the International Council of Museums (ICOM).
It is worth noting that the Republic of Niger is a member country of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), the African Union (AU), the United Nations Organization (UNO), the Islamic Conference Organization, the International Organisation of the Francophonie (OIF), Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), etc.
Niger is also one of the founding fathers of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) established on 22nd May 1964.
The official language of the Republic of Niger is French.
The Capital City of the Republic of Niger is Niamey.
Sources : http : //www//wikipedia.org/wiki/Niger
Official languages: English
Date of Accession: 22nd May 1964
Area: 923, 773 km2
Population: 170 million inhabitants
The Federal Republic of Nigeria covers a surface area of 923, 773 square kilometres with a population of 170 million inhabitants in 2012. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The Federal Republic of Nigeria is located on the edge of the Gulf of Guinea and is borded in the west by Benin, in the east by Cameroon, in the north by Niger and in the north-east by Chad.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria was a former English colony. The Noks are the dominant civilization in the 6th Century BC. In the 3rd Century, this civilization reached Ife and Benin regions. From the 7th to the 11th Centuries, the following events happened: installation of Hausa and Yoruba civilizations in the northern and the south-west parts of the country, respectively. The empire of Kanem (up to the 14th Century) followed by the empire of Kanem-Bornu (which reached its apex in the 16th Century) in the Lake Chad area dominated the northern part of Nigeria for more than 600 years, thereby, thriving in the trade as the area is considered to be a significant platform for the north-south exchanges between Berbers from the northern Africa and people from forest regions. At the beginning of the 19th Century, Usman Dan Fodio conquered most of the regions of the northern part of the country under the control of a vast Islamic empire managed from Sokoto. The Kingdoms of Oyo in the south-west and the south-east of Benin set up some political systems developed during the 15th, 16th and the 17th Centuries. Ife and Benin regions are also known for their artistic productions in ivory, wood, bronze and copper. In 1486, Portuguese made contacts with the Kingdom of Benin. In 1553, the English destroyed Portuguese vessels and from the 17th Century to the 19th Century, European merchants set up coastal ports for the flourishing slave trade towards the Americas. This trade was replaced by that of raw materials during the 19th Century. The Government of the United Kingdom offered a legal status to the royal Company of Niger in 1886. In 1900, this territory is divided into several protectorates and became a colony in 1914. In response to the continually increasing nationalism after the Second World War, the British provide the country with a representative government in 1951 and with a federal constitution in 1954. The Nigerian flag was designed in 1958 by Taiwo Akinkunmi. Nigeria has become independent on the 1st October 1960.
Nigeria is undoubtedly the most populous country in Africa with a very high population growth rate. The rich diversity of the country is due to the diversity of customs, languages and traditions of 250 ethnic groups which compose the country. The northern part of the country is mainly populated by the Hausa who are predominantly Muslims. Four (4) States in the northern part of Nigeria (Borno, Yobe, Jigawa, and Kano) share the heritage of Lake Chad. The other significant ethnic groups in this part of the country are Nupe, Tiv, and Kanuri. The Yorubas are the dominant ethnic group in the southern part of the country. They are predominantly christians. About a quarter of this ethnic group are Muslims while the remaining generally practice ancestral religions. Finally, the south-east of the country is occupied by the Igbos who are predominantly Christians. The two major religions are Christianity and Islam.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria follows the Federalism system and includes 36 States.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria is provided with significant natural and mining resources of which oil and gas are the main source of revenues of the country. The country is the first oil producer country in Africa, the fifth country of the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the 10th worldwide. Nigeria is the 6th oil exporting country with a revenue exceeding 34 billion Euros in 2006. The country also produces certain metals (tin metals, iron, lead, zinc, etc) as well as coal3.
The Federal Republic of Niger is a Member of the Commonwealth, the ECOWAS, AU, UNO, etc.
The Federal Republic of Niger is a founding father of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) since 22nd May 1964.
The official language of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is English.
Abuja is the capital city of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Official languages: French and Sango
Date of Accession: 31 October 1996
Area: 622,984 km2
Population: 5,057,208 inhabitants
Currency: France CFA
The Central African Republic is a central Africa’s country borded in the west by the Republic of Cameroon, in the north by the Republic of Chad, in the east by Sudan and South Sudan, and in the south by the Democratic Republic of Congo and Congo. The country covers a surface area of 622,984 square kilometres with a population estimated at 5,057,208 inhabitants in 2012.
The Central African Republic (CAR) is a former French colony. In fact, the French colonized the region at the end of the 19th Century and managed it under the name of Oubangui-Chari. In the course of the Second World War, the colony joined the allied forces. The country has become the Central African Republic from 1st December 1958. The CAR was independent on 13th August 1960. The Central African Republic has two major separate basins (Chari and Oubangui) which source the Lake Chad basin. Chari River flows towards the North (the Lake Chad basin) with some water courses like the Logone, the Ouham, and the Chari. The Oubangui basin which is essentially composed of Oubangui tributaries flows towards the South (Congo basin). Bouar, Bossangoa, Bambari, Bria, NDele, Obo, and Brao are six (6) States which share the Lake Chad common heritage.
Eighty (80) ethnic groups are identified throughout the country with different languages. The Sango language is considered as the lingua franca in the country as far as trade and other exchanges are concerned. However, this language is not spoken in the northern part of the country dominated by Muslim ethnic groups. There is a cultural diversity in the Central African. In the same vein, an important ethnic group is mainly composed of Bantus present in Congo and Cameroon, and is divided into a plethora of populations strongly attached to the local group. Each « big city » has thus its own people, its own language and a recent history related to the politicians and leaders coming from this city. Pigmies are visibly a different people regarding their body and their culture of people of forest. For a very long time, pigmies are considered as second class human beings. These people still conserve their habits and live in their natural environment without any access to the minimal « social progress » that the country has achieved so far.
The Central African Republic is composed of seven (7) regions, sixteen (16) Prefectures, and seventy one (71) sous-prefectures.
The sub-soil of the Central African Republic has revealed an abundance of diamond, uranium and gold. Forestry resources are very significant in the Central African Republic. Oil and hydropower are other resources potentially very significant but unexploited.
The Central African Republic is a Member country of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the International Organization of the Francophonie (OIF), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Francophonie (APF), etc.
The Central African Republic has joined the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) since 31 October 1996.
French and Sango are the two major official languages spoken in the Central African Republic.
The capital city of the CAR is Bangui.
Official languages: French and Arabic
Date of Accession:22nd May 1964
Area: 1,284,000 km2
Population: 11,500, 000 inhabitants
Currency: France CFA
The Republic of Chad which is a former French colony was independent on 11th August 1960.
Chad is considered as a bridge between the North Africa and the Sub-Saharan Africa, the hub of the transsaharan caravans and the cradle of nomadic civilizations. The country is shared between the desert in the northern part and the savanna in the southern part, the ascetic muslim traditions and Christian or animist rituals. Nomadic populations are living at the same rhythm as their camels and based on the availability of grazing lands. As far as farmers are concerned, they are sparing no efforts to domesticate farm lands in order to meet their basic needs; thereby improving their living conditions. The lowest area is occupied by Lake Chad which is the final reservoir of large floodplains of the Chari-Logone river system. These two rivers are the only river system: The Chari flows over 1,200 km from the Central African Republic and is its major tributary while the Logone which was born in Cameroon flows over 1,000 km. The Chari and the Logone converge close to the capital city. They are partially navigable four (4) months during the year. There are five major lakes, namely: Lake Chad, Lake Fitri, Lake Iro, Lake Lere, and Lake Tekem which are part of the Lake Chad Conventional basin.
The Republic of Chad is composed of numerous ethnic groups. The twelve major ethnic groups are as follows: Arabs (12.3 %), Baguirmians (1.5%), the Fitri Batha (4.7%), the Goranes (6.3 %), the Hadjarai (6.7%), the Kanem-Bornou (9 %), the Iro (0.5 %), the Mayo-Kébbi (11.5 %), the Ouaddai (8.7%), the Peuls (2.4%), the Sara (27.7%), and the Tandjilé (6.5 %).
The Republic of Chad is divided into 23 regions, 61 prefectures and 252sous-prefectures.
The Republic of Chad has many agricultural resources (groundnuts, millet, sorghum, cotton, livestock, and arabic gum), forestry resources, mining resources (Oil) and livestock exportation (bovines, goats, sheep, camels and poultry). The Republic of Cameroon and the Federal Republic of Nigeria are the key markets of Chad in Africa while France, Germany, and Portugal are its primary clients in Europe. Before the exploitation of the country’s oil reserves, the cotton accounted for 40 % of the exports of the country. The rehabilitation of the country’s largest cotton company, Chad cotton, which suffered a lot from the drop of raw materials prices, was funded by France, Netherlands, the European Economic Community and the International Bank for the Reconstruction and the Development.
The Republic of Chad is an ex-officio member of the Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), the International Organisation of the Francophonie (OIF), the Commonwealth, the Economic Community of Central Africa States (ECCAS), the Central Africa States Bank (BEAC), the Islamic Conference Organization (ICO), the African Union (UA), etc.
The Republic of Chad is a Founding Father of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) established on 22nd May 1964.
The Republic of Chad has two official languages, namely French and Arabic.
N’Djamena is the capital city of the Republic of Chad.
Surces : http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89conomie_du_Tchad http: //www.presidencetchad.org