Mapping of the Lake Chad
Lake Chad is a large water lot surrounded in the North West by shoe string sand and the floodplains in the North East and the South.
The size of the lake ranges between less than 2, 000 km2 today as opposed to 25, 000 km2 before 1973. This is attributed to the climate variability and the water utilisation.
Although the Northern basin of the lake faced the floods since 1998 after drying up completely in 1976, most of the open waters of the lake are found in the southern basin.
A cartographic study was conducted in 2011 in the southern basin by LCBC. The objective of this study is to bring together the land use units for the full cartography of Lake Chad.
The methodology used included the encoding of the land use units to be identified, the spatialisation of the localities and the sampling of the three Landsat images of 2009 at the various shooting dates used in a mosaic manner from a grid (0.5°x 0.5°), the implementation of the corrected methodology on the entire basin after its identification on the encoding and the survey of the GPS points of each unit.
The study highlighted 65 land use units and GPS points. These were spatialised and included the following: villages, mosaic of cultures, weeding plains, pasturelands, invasive plant species, open water table, sand deposits and forests.
Three types of vegetation cover the southern basin:
- The woody: Accacia sieberiana, Prosopis juliflora;
- Fresh water species: Vossia Cuspidata, Phragmites australis;
- Grass cover essentially the Panicum repens.
The vegetation covers 70%, the sand bar,19% and open waters,11%.